The story of a 50-seat regional jet, produced by Canadair and Embraer – and to a lesser extent preceded by the Fokker F.28 Fellowker and the British Aerospace BAe-146 – was in many ways Long Island MacArthur & # 39; story, because this type finally facilitated the service of the main charges in accordance with the carrier. It represents greater airline reach to smaller and secondary airports and offers the same speed, block times and comfort as traditionally larger main jets, reducing the gap between them and 19-50 passenger turboprops that were too small and too slow for many of of these sectors.
The need was largely due to the deregulation of airlines, which in the US brought the rise of the hub-and-spoke system. Traveling and bringing passengers to larger capacity aircraft, such as the US, Continental, Delta and United, from longer but thin segments operated by regional airlines that carried large companies. the two-digit code and the livery, originally independent commuters, quickly spread, primarily due to this new type of nozzle. It was the right aircraft at the right time and led to what was called the "regional jet revolution".
Not only were regional jets the most cost-effective way to connect hundreds, if not thousands, of communities with hubs and global airlines, "according to Bombardier Aerospace (which was subsequently acquired by Canadair)", these innovative aircraft reinforced passenger travel experience and provided regional airlines increased traffic, revenue and market share. To further increase traffic, the idea of using the Canadair Regional Jet to fly between years has spoken. the city was elevated. Each new spoken city has increased the number of connecting passengers flying to the main partner of the regional airline. These additional routes provided passengers in small communities with more flight options. "
This was certainly at Islip's MacArthur Airport on Long Island.
"There are literally hundreds of markets that could not support regular air service, but 30, 50 and 70 seats can now bring comfort and economic service," commented Doug Blissit, once Delta Air Lines & # 39; vice president of network analysis. "Regional jets are a phenomenal economic transformation of industry. The vast majority of deployments were to extend the reach of hubs to more economical aircraft."
In addition to the cooperative nature of this type, it also had a competitive side. It could be considered as an instrument that attacked major fixed-hub airlines that allow smaller carriers, who started out as traditional commuter turboprops, to break into cracks in large companies. armor, forging new point-to-point routes that did not require charge for corresponding load factors.
Early regional flight operations:
Perhaps the earliest regional stream in the Western world, which excludes the Russian three-engine, 27-passenger Yakovlev Yak-40 from the discussion, was the Fokker F.28.
The popularity of its high-wing, twin-turboprop, 40-passenger F.27 friendship, as a compass needle pointing in the direction of a pure jet complement that would offer higher speeds and thus reduced block times, led to the development of the F.28 itself.
It was announced in April 1962 and was intended for short field operations, but offered a higher number of seats for 65 in the fuselage wide enough for five-stage arrangements. It appeared similar to major jets such as the British Aircraft Corporation BAC-111 and McDonnell-Douglas DC-9, and on its leading edge featured a low mounted, folded swept wing, two rear mounted Rolls Royce RB.183 Spey Junior turbofans, dorsal fin. and tail, yet retain simplicity by removing any high-end devices. A unique design was the hydraulically operated petal air brake, which formed the rear end of the fuselage. Expandable to varying degrees, facilitating steep but slow and controlled glide profiles.
In addition to the financial support provided by the Dutch Government, the risk-sharing scheme came from the Short Brothers of Belfast in Northern Ireland; HFB and VFW of Germany; and AiResearch, Dowty Rotol and Goodyear.
Three prototypes respectively first flew on May 9, August 3, October 20, 1967, and the first production version, the F.28-1000, was delivered to launch the German customer LTU on February 24, two years later. As was the case with F.27, sales could be counted as a one-digit number, as F.28 was usually the largest type of small-scale airline fleet.
The stretched version, the F.28-4000, had a total length of 97.2 feet and an almost 12 feet greater wingspan of 82.3 feet. Powered by two Rolls Royce Spey 555-15H turbochargers with 9,950 thrusts, it had a maximum take-off weight of 73,000 pounds, a cruising speed of 530 km / h at 21,000 feet, and a maximum payload to fuel ratio ranging from 1,162 to 2,560 miles. It accommodated 79 five passengers, passengers in one class, six others, 85 in total, could be carried to a 29-inch pitch with the installation of another exit exit on both sides.
The type was reflected in Operation Islip in Piedmont.
Piedmont itself began its scheduled air service on February 20, 1948 with Flight 41. Departure from Wilmington, North Carolina at 0700, its DC-3 made a multi-way trip to Pinehurst, Charlotte, Ashville, Tri-Cities, Lexington and Cincinnati. The metal and human backbone consisted of two other aircraft of this type and 250 employees.
With the gradual expansion, particularly with the extension of the route to Atlanta, it initially fed Delta and Eastern flights, grew significantly until it became an independent US major. Perhaps the symbol of his prestige was both the literal and the image of a large airline in New York in 1966.
Profits grew: $ 1 million in 1965 and almost double two years later. He built his first hub in Charlotte, North Carolina and radiated his reach to major cities such as Boston, Pittsburgh, Tampa, Miami and Dallas / Ft. Worth and Denver, exceeding passenger numbers, Eastern Airlines & # 39; traditional Charlotte fortress.
Running 727–100, 727–2007, and 737–200s – the second short to medium-term working horse – advertised in its system schedule on October 31, 1982: “We make it easier to approach more than 80 cities.”
The cartridges were subsequently set up in Baltimore and Dayton, and a wide range of 767-200ER eventually arrived on the west coast and Europe.
In 1987, Piedmont 177 operated a strong fleet to approximately 235 destinations, carrying 23 million passengers, and became mature to acquire $ 1.6 billion in USAir.
Capacity, in particular 65 F.28-1000 passengers, secured the frequency at MacArthur Airport on Long Island.
Of the five daily departures dispatched to downtown Baltimore, morning and evening flights were made with 128 passengers 737-300; in the middle of the morning and afternoon they flew with Henson, 37 passengers DHC-8-100 with Hiemon, Piedmont Regional Airline; and the noon sector was made with the F.28-1000, allowing him to "size" his equipment according to time of day, capacity and demand.
When Piedmont in 1986 acquired Empire Airlines based on New York City and Concentrated Airlines in New York, along with Syracuse Center and 85 F.28-4000 passengers, he deployed this type from Islip to feed his highly developed Charlotte Center.
Another early regional aircraft was the British aviation BAe-146.
The final design response to the need for a feeder or regional aircraft has undergone numerous iterations, including high-wing, twin-engine DH.123 turbochargers designed by de Havilland and the stern-wing lower wing until it arrived at the HS.146 Hawker Siddeley with Avco Lycoming ALF-502 high bypass turbofans. . Since they did not develop the required thrust for the assumed aircraft, only the use of four pylons attached to the underside of the upper wing could provide the necessary power and reach.
Although the official launch in 1973 seemed promising, the ensuing world recession, rising oil prices and rising development costs caused it to timed badly, which led to its end in October 1974. Nevertheless, developments in low-key terms continued.
After de Havilland and Hawker Siddeley merged into the nationalized British Aerospace and carried out their own design and market review, the government granted full support to the development of the program on 10 July 1978.
The final meeting was held in Hatfield.
Sports like the Fellowship F.28, the t-tail and rear petal, the air brake forming the fuselage for a steep approach, deviated by having a high wing, also without leading edge, and four turbofans. While his cabin was wide enough for six-seated seating, most carriers chose five.
The first flight BAe-146-100 from Hatfield occurred on 3 September 1981. Two successive versions followed, the BAe-146-200 and -300.
The former, which first took air on August 1, 1982, featured a 93.10-foot length and 86-foot span with a 15-degree sweepback and tabbed, trailing edges of the Fowler flap. At a height of six to 29 inches it was possible to accommodate up to 112 passengers in one class. Its maximum gross weight was 93,000 pounds and the range, at full payload, was 1,130 nautical miles.
The BAe-146 was inaugurated at Air Wisconsin on June 27, 1983.
Presidential Airways, founded by Harold J. Pareti in 1985 and based in Washington, was the only operator of this type to Islip and, in addition to its 737-200s, maintained a fleet of eight BAe-146-200s. Joining Long Island with its Dulles International hub, it later acted as the Continental Express and United Express carrier sharing code, respectively, feeding each of its major flights in Washington.
Later regional flight operations:
The first regional aircraft of the new generation was created as CRJ Canadair (later Bombardier).
In addition to developing completely new designs, aircraft manufacturers of potential low capacity clean jets had two options: to reduce an existing major aircraft, such as the DC-9-10, which would add too much structural weight to its market or increase the aircraft. Those in the second category were commercial jets, though their narrow hulls gave them less than ideal for such a commercial application. Given the wide cab of its own CL-600 Challenger, which first flew in 1978, Canadair could choose the second option.
Originally supposed to include a single section with a capacity of 24 four-way passengers and labeled CL-600E, it was first published in 1980, but its plans to continue the version were canceled the following year. In 1987, or one year after Bairardier acquired Canadair, the concept of small regional jets was reconsidered, leading to its launch in 1989.
A more ambitious version than initially considered was the 19.5-foot stretch, achieved through the forward and rear fuselage plugs, additional emergency exits with overload, a reinforced wing with increased fuel capacity and two stern General Electric CF34 turbofans in which it seemed to have taken it for the first time. heaven as a prototype on May 10, 1991. After a three-year flight test program, he received FAA certification on October 29 of the following year, and then entered service with Lufthansa CityLine launch customer to use point-to-point and hub-feed services to Western European destinations. Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Munich.
The original version of the CRJ-100, excluding what a pilot called a "sexy look", had a pointed nose, 87.10 feet, 69.7 feet, a wing attached to a wing of 520.4 square feet and only the back edge of the flap, two pull switches 93420 CF34-3A1 with dampers and turbofans and tail. Fifty-four passengers could be accommodated in the slender seats in the cabin with the falling overhead storage, the kitchen and the toilet.
The payload was £ 13,500, a gross weight of £ 53,000, and reached 1,650 nautical miles.
The following CRJ-200, powered by CF34-3B1, offered greater range, lower fuel consumption and higher cruising speed and altitude.
Sales of both types totaled 1,054.
Headquartered at Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport, Comair was the first modern regional aircraft operator on the long MacArthur Island.
Started as an airline in 1977, initially landed in Akron / Canton, Cleveland and Evansville with eight passengers, Piper Navajos reciprocating, followed by the 18-passenger turboprop Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirantes.
Adopted as a Delta Connection carrier and operating in its rental business after the Cincinnati Center was established in 1984, it significantly expanded and soon acquired the Fairchild Swearingen Metro, Shorts 330, Embraer, EMB-120 Brasilia and Saab 340 facilities. Orlando became the second center.
As an American customer to Canadair Regional Jet operated until 2005, 163 type, of which 63 CRJ-100ER, 37 CRJ-100LR, 37 CRJ-200ER and 27 CRJ-700LR.
Delta acquired 20 percent of Comair's shares in 1996 and the rest three years later.
This type was instrumental in the Islip opening ceremony and provided three daily morning, afternoon and evening sightseeing flights to Cincinnati so passengers could join their own Delta flights and partner flights. This link opened the rest of the country and part of Canada's Long Island.
MacArthur's Canadair Regional Jet, also a Delta Connection carrier, was ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines.
Launch of Independent Regular Service from Atlanta to Columbus, Georgia with de Havilland, Canada DHC-6 Twin Other, aircraft on June 27, 1979, proceeded with another turboprop propulsion, the EMB-110, and then acquired a pure jet BAe-146-200 and Types CRJ -200, who after feeding their bilateral marketing agreement with him fed Atlanta hub in Delta. As happened with Comair, ASA was added by increasing share purchases until Delta fully owned it.
Cincinnati, which reached in 2002, was the 100th target and in 2003 it took delivery of the 100th regional aircraft. Until 2011, it operated 112 CRJ-200ERs, 46 CRJ-700ERs and 10 CRJ-900ERs.
Since 1 August 1999, Islip has been connected to its own and extensive Atlanta Delta hub with three daily CRJ-200 orbital flights operated by ASA since 1 August 1999. Comair later also served this route.
Another Canadair Regional Jet operator to Islip was Air Wisconsin, which was designated US Airways Express and reestablished the connection lost as a result of the Washington Reagan National slot cutoff when its incoming aircraft, which arrived on March 25, 2012 at 1250, was fitted with a water curtain. on the MacArthur ramp.
Departure in 1328 became the first of two daily return flights CRJ-200. Although the legislators strongly supported it, it was short-lived.
The counterpart of the Canadair Regional Jet – if not a competitor – was the Embraer ERJ-145.
Using its energy from previously unavailable engines that allowed it to operate in primarily unused markets, it sought to outweigh its higher fuel consumption compared to traditional turboprop engines by increasing the daily use of its shorter block holiday times associated with greater passenger acceptance.
Unlike the Canadair CL-600 Challenger business jet, it used the EMB-120 Brasilia as its inspirational base, featuring two fuselage plugs and a redesigned wing, with an extended leading edge chord, mild sweepback, and winglets, but replacing its turboprop engines with pure jet motors encapsulated in capsules. The tail was retained. It was originally designated as Amazon EMB-145.
In early 1990, the Allison GMA-3007 turbofan was selected, producing a 7,100 pound thrust with a potential of up to 10,000 pounds.
Iterations that meant lengths, more span, more fuel capacity, more weights and better performance led to the final ERJ-145, which first flown on August 1, 1995. Accommodating 50 passengers in one class, three in the first round with a partial step – down the aisle at the very front of the cabin, it had a payload of 12,755 pounds and a gross weight of 48,501 pounds. It was first delivered to introduce a customer of ExpressJet Airlines, operating as Continental Express, the following year, providing capacity, speed and range to match demand on longer, thin routes both feeding its own flights and that of Continental.
"Continental Airlines, with its hub at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, is the largest airline in Northeast Ohio, with more than 250 daily departures to nearly 80 cities," says United Airlines & # 39; 29.03.2004 Corporate News. “With one of the youngest fleets in the United States, Continental and Continental Express offer convenient high-frequency service from Cleveland Hopkins to major business centers, including Boston, New York (Newark Liberty, La Guardia, Kennedy, White Plains, and Islip), Washington (Reagan National, Baltimore-Washington, and Dulles), Chicago (Hare and Midway), Houston, and Atlanta.
Like other regional airlines, ExpressJet was associated with the outcome of several turboprop carriers – including Bar Harbor Airlines from Bangor, Maine; PBA Provincetown-Boston Airlines of Hyannis, Massachusetts; Rocky Mountain Airways in Denver, Colorado; and Brit Airways of Terre Haute, Indiana, all flying the operating certificate.
It launched the ERJ-145 regional air service on 4 September 1998 and eventually became the largest operator of all three versions, including the smaller, 37-passenger ERJ-135 and 44-passenger ERJ-140.
His three day morning, afternoon, and evening Islip-Cleveland frequencies, bearing the "CO" flight numbers, linked Long Island to the rest of the country.
Another regional air carrier MacArthur Embraer was the American Eagle.
Like Continental Express, the American Eagle concept, which was unveiled at the end of 1984, was the result of American Airlines & # 39; the inability to serve economically the secondary and tertiary main jet markets. It grew rapidly, powered its charges, and advanced from a turboprop to a purely jet device. The first officially designated American Eagle flight from Fayetteville, Arkansas to Dallas took place on November 1 when one of his 14 Convair 580s Metroflight, powered by two Allison 501-D13H turbochargers, powered by two 3,750 shp, landed on American & # 39; southwestern hub. The aircraft converted from CV-240s, -340s and -440s with piston drive was eventually replaced by the Saab 340s.
The second to join the fold, also that year, was Poughkeepsie, New York, based Command Airways, which ran the Beech 99s, DHC-6 Twin Otters, Shorts 330s, Shorts 360s and ATR-42s.
Third Simmons deployed Japanese NAMC YS-11s, 360s shorts, ATR-42s and ATR-72s from Chicago-O & # 39; Hare and Wings West, fourth, posted C99, Fairchild Swearingen Metros, Jetstream 31s and Saab 340s to West Coast destinations.
Finally, powerful Puerto Rico-based airlines jumped into the pool on September 15, 1986 and operated CASA C-212-200 Aviocars, Shorts 360s and ATR-72s.
From Islip he ran the noon ERJ-145 to Chicago-O & # 39; Hare, complementing the American morning and evening MD-80, and replaced his four-day, 34-passenger Saab 340s (which once flew in Business Express Colors before AMR, Inc., acquired and folded to the American brand Eagle) with the same number of frequencies ERJ-135 with 37 passengers.
Another US operator Long Island MacArthur American Eagle ERJ-145 was Piedmont, who traces its origin Henson Airlines.
Founded in 1961 by Richard A. Henson, the aviation pioneer and test pilot of Fairchild Aircraft, planted sedentary roots as a fixed base operator in Hagerstown, Maryland, labeled "Henson Aviation," yet launched its own scheduled service from here to Washington, DC 1962 under the name "Hagerstown Commuter".
Five years later, she entered into a code-sharing agreement with Allegheny Airlines and replaced the carrier's own service in Salisbury, Maryland. In 1977, it expanded to Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, boarding its millionth passenger and winning its first four-engine. 54-passenger de Havilland in Canada DHC-7 two years later.
Purchased by Piedmont Airlines in 1983, it was rebranded as "Henson, a regional airline in Piedmont".
The following year it took delivery of the first 37 DHC-8-100 passengers and served 38 destinations in ten states and the Bahamas by the end of 1987.
After merging with USAir in 1989, Henson served as the USAir Express and later US Airways Express, but four years later it was renamed "Piedmont Airlines" to retain its original identity. American Airlines, which bought US Airways in 2013 and rebranded it American Eagle, maintained this philosophy.
Today Piedmont / American Eagle operates three daily frequencies of ERJ-145 and leaves for Islip at 0710, 1035 and 1858 to Philadelphia, one of the USAir / US Airways & # 39; former hubs. Return flights arrive on Long Island land in 1007, 1833 and 2221.
ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines and Comair operated a larger CRJ-700 to Islip.
The result of Bombardier's first attempt to offer a higher capacity version to compete more effectively with the Fokker F.70 and the Avro International RJ70, both 70 seats, officially launched the program in January 1997. Based on the original CRJ -200, it introduced a slightly wider hull with 106, 8-foot overall length; a larger wing with a span of 76.3 feet and 760 square feet; the front edges of the slats for increased low-speed stroke and reduced take-off; Turbochargers CF34-8C5B1 with thrust 13,790; lower deck for greater ground clearance; elevated passenger windows; capacity of one class 78; and a maximum payload of 18,000 and 75,000 pounds.
The first flight on 27 May 1999 entered service with Brit Air two years later, maintaining the same type rating as its smaller capacity predecessors.
Its extended range CRJ-700ER had the capability of 1,504 nautical miles and cruising speed of 448 knots / 515 mph / Mach 0.78.
Regional streams over time:
Due to demand, the need to adjust capacity, scheduling and in some cases to replace one type of aircraft with another, any attempt to discuss Long Jet MacArthur's regional jet operations can be done as snapshots.
For example, during the second part of 1988, which may be considered as its initial regional jet period, Presidential Airways operated its BAe-146-200s to Washington-Dulles, while Piedmont kept the frequency "on board" to maintain the frequency and entered 65 – midday noon F.28-1000 between morning and evening 737-300 s and morning Henson DHC-8-100 s.
In 1998, considered the dawn of the new generation of regional aircraft, he saw Long Island connected to the Delta Atlanta and Cincinnati hubs and the 50-seat Continental Cleveland CRJ-100, CRJ-200, and ERJ-145s operated by Comair, ASA and ExpressJet.
Daily departures included three Comair / Delta Connection CRJ-100s to Cincinnati, two American Eagle ERJ-145s to Chicago, two and later three ExpressJet / Continental Express ERJ-145s to Cleveland, and three ASA / Delta Connection CRJ-200s to Atlanta.
During the first month of regional air traffic, the airline carried a total of 6,980 passengers, making it the third largest airport tenant in terms of catering.
In December 1999, eight out of 37 daily flights were made with a clean jet, ie 19 percent, with a new breed of Canadair and Embraer regional aircraft. By March 2000, the monthly regional aircraft had a total of 16,210, ie 6,107 carried by ASA, 6,831 by Comair and 3,212 carried by ExpressJet.
In August 2002, American Eagle replaced its four Saab 340 flights to Boston with an ERJ-135, providing an American Airlines hub, and in the fall, ASA and Comair upgraded two or three of their Atlanta and Cincinnati frequencies to a larger capacity CRJ-700.
Last inauguration for regional jet services:
The latest carrier to enter the Long Island market with a regional aircraft was Elite Airways.
Founded as reflecting its name to offer a quality travel experience in 2016, the company entered the arena as an American Part 121 airline, carrying sports teams and leadership on scheduled and charter services on Northeast Florida routes with one CRJ -100, five CRJ-200 and five CRJ-700.
Limited service CRJ-700 twice a week from Islip to Portland, Maine; Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; and Melbourne, Florida, were inaugurated on June 17, 2016. However, lower-than-expected factors led to a double suspension between January 15 and February 16, 2017 and April and July of the same year to reconsider their strategy.
While the second suspension changed to an unexpected 16-month period, it finally reappeared on September 6, 2018, this time heading Thursday and Sunday for the CRJ-200 to Melbourne. Designated flight 7Q 21 departed at 8:00 and arrived in the state of sunshine in 1045. After a 45-minute turnaround, he broke up again at 1130 for Bimini in the Bahamas and became the first Islip connection.
"The route is designed to allow Islip passengers to book a flight to Melbourne only or to remain on board a Bimini liaison service," says Rebecca Emery, Elite Airways CEO of Public Relations. "It's the closest Bahamian island to the US with miles of beaches, four-star hotels and Resorts World Bimini Casino and Marina."
The return flight, 7Q 23, departed Bimini in 1330, but required US customs and border patrols. Landing in Melbourne an hour later, it followed operated as 7Q 24, take off in 1600 and touch down at MacArthur in 2045.
The low-load factors again caused its interruption, so the Piedmont / American Eagle ERJ-145s remained in Philadelphia as Islip's remaining regional jet operations at the dawn of 2020.